Sharon Domenica Guanoluisa Chicaiza1 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9978-3452, Carolina Arráiz de Fernández2 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3302-4274

1Nursing Career Student. Technical University of Ambato, Ambato/Ecuador.

2Professor of the Nursing Career. Researcher of the Project "Prevention Strategies for Childhood Diseases, the success of modern pediatrics". Technical University of Ambato, Ambato/Ecuador.

2477-9172 / 2550-6692 Derechos Reservados © 2022 Universidad Técnica de Ambato, Carrera de Enfermería. Este es un artículo de acceso abierto distribuido bajo los términos de la Licencia Creative Commons, que permite uso ilimitado, distribución y reproducción en cualquier medio, siempre que la obra original es debidamente citada.

Received: March 1, 2022

Accepted: May 10, 2022


Introduction: The global concept of professional quality of life (QOL) is complex. It involves characteristics of a work environment, personal characteristics of the individual and the professional's exposure to primary and secondary traumas in the work environment. Objective: To determine the quality of work life of rotating nursing interns in pre-professional practice. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional and correlational research was carried out for the period from September 2021 to January 2022. The CVP-35 Questionnaire was used, which has an overall reliability of 0.90. The subscales of each dimension have a high internal consistency (Cronbach's α between 0.75 and 0.86). Results: The comprehensive analysis of the CVP-35 Questionnaire in the rotating interns showed

55.4% for the managerial support factor, 68.3% for the work demand factor and 98%. Regarding the quality of working life, a predominance of high quality of life was demonstrated with 55 (54.5%), followed by a similar predominance of the average quality of life with 46 (45.5%) and none presented low quality of life. Conclusions: The quality of work life of rotating nursing interns, in their pre-professional practice, is high. Half presented an average quality of life for the managerial support factor. More than half of the interns reached an average quality of life for the work demand factor and finally almost all of the nursing interns present a high quality of life for the intrinsic motivation factor.

Keywords: nursing, quality management, quality of life, work

Corresponding author: Dra. Carolina Arráiz de Fernández. Email: ca.arraiz@uta.edu.ec


The quality of life at work is an abstract and multidimensional concept that is constituted when the individual, through his work activities, covers his personal, economic and professional needs (1). It allows them to function in their work environment and have an experience of well-being consequent to the perception of balance between the demands of a professional job and the resources available to face them. Thus, they can achieve optimal development in the professional, family and personal spheres (2).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), quality of life is the perception that an individual has of their place of existence in the context of culture and value system in which they live and in relation to his expectations, his norms and their concerns. It is a very broad concept that is influenced in a complex way by the physical health of the subject, their psychological state, their level of independence, their social relationships, as well as their relationship with the elements of their environment (1). The global concept of professional quality of life is complex since it involves both the characteristics of the work environment, as well as the personal characteristics of the individual and the professional's exposure to primary and secondary traumas in a work environment (3).

The quality of work life is defined as the experience of wellbeing derived from the balance perceived by the individual

between work demands and the resources available to deal with them (4). And it is reflected in the attitude and expression of employees, whether in a satisfactory or unsatisfactory way regarding their workplace. It must provide safety, fair income, good treatment, freedom of expression and equal opportunities for men and women (5). Regarding nursing professionals, they represent 70% of the workforce of any health institution, whether public or private, being mostly women who are in charge of providing high-quality and warm care. However, the shortage of personnel has increased workloads within health institutions and it is causing high rates of stress, job dissatisfaction, lower performance and personal frustration. This deteriorates physical and mental health by creating a significant imbalance in the combination of work and family. It undoubtedly deteriorates the quality of professional life (6), which in many cases can lead to burnout syndrome. This makes workers feel frustrated by not achieving their work goals (7).

It is of great importance to relate the factors that influence changes in the quality of working life of rotating nursing interns in their pre-professional practice. It is known that, in order to provide a good care service, the nursing staff must have integrity in their physical, psychological and occupational health (8). This must be optimal, since we understand that they have the necessary means, capacity and knowledge, to be able to prevent risks and carry out quality self-care actions (9).

Currently, the care nurse is subjected to overload work because patients are becoming more demanding and are of more-complex management (10).

The term quality of work life focuses on creating pleasant work environments, with the aim of improving care for our patients and achieving a peaceful and positive relationship. Therefore, rotating nursing interns show that there is a relationship of commitment, camaraderie and responsibility (11). Quality of work should promote healthy work environments where the nursing staff has the necessary tools to provide quality care to users, and maintain job safety, job satisfaction, professional development, well-being of individuals and the balance between personal life and work (12).

The quality of life of a person is closely linked to the quality of work life because work not only covers an important role that generates economic income, but also material, social, psychological satisfaction and above all, personal development. It seeks to be an ergonomic job, with healthy working conditions, that provides autonomy, participation, motivation and personal development (13). In particular, lack of time is observed in nursing areas. It affects the personal life of workers. It has repercussions, sooner or later and directly, on the work performance. It also creates an imbalance in the determinants of health that opens opportunities to research (14).

Among the determining factors in the quality of working life of health personnel we find the inadequate organization of work, multi-employment and labor flexibility, night and shift work that unbalances physical, mental and social health. It also includes work overload due to daily work, lack of stimuli and professional development, feelings of anxiety and depression due to permanent contact with pain and illness (15).

First, knowing the quality of life of rotating nursing interns can create initiatives that prevent professional exhaustion during the training period of future nurses and second it can improve the quality of their training practice (16). The pre-professional practices of the nursing career at Technical University of Ambato are developed in the eighth semester. It is considered as the rotating internship with a duration of one year. It is divided into five areas: gynecology and obstetrics, surgery, community health, pediatrics and clinical practice. The students are distributed in three hospitals: General Hospital of Latacunga, Ambato Teaching Hospital and General Hospital of


Research with a quantitative, cross-sectional and correlational approach, focused on the collection and analysis of data obtained during the research. It will be carried out in the period from September 2021 to January 2022 It is non-experimental design since there is no manipulation of variables and the information is obtained through the application of a survey-type instrument

For the data collection of the current investigation, an online survey structured in Microsoft Forms was used. It is composed in its first part by informed consent and sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, teaching unit), followed by the Quality of Professional Life Questionnaire CVP-35, designed by Salvador García Sánchez, and adapted to Spanish by Carmen Cabezas (1998). With an overall reliability of 0.90. The subscales of each dimension have a high internal consistency (Cronbach's α between 0.75 and 0.86) (26). This questionnaire is made up of 35 items distributed in 3 factors: Executive Support: with 12 questions. Score for high quality of life (CVA) between 18-26 points, for medium quality of life (CVM) between

Puyo. It includes rotating shifts of 6, 8 and 12 hours depending on their place of work (17).

The CVP-35 professional quality of life survey is made up of: -managerial support, focused on the recognition received from superiors when activities are carried out correctly; -work demands, related to care provided to patients, where effectiveness and efficiency are sought to face workloads that arise daily; -intrinsic motivation, is what drives you to do what you love. Nursing being a health branch requires daily updates, whether technological or new techniques and procedures, in order to be trained and be able to provide comprehensive care (18). Regarding managerial support, it has been considered that participation, the possibility that the ideas of workers are listened to, the recognition of the effort and information on the results of the work have a great impact on the quality of work life, the resources used and the establishment of efficient measures. Otherwise, the wear and tear of a professional could lead to personal and work deterioration, affecting the quality of care provided and user satisfaction (19). The health of the staff has repercussions on health institutions, due to absenteeism, performance errors, and decreased productivity. It is said that professionals need precision and accuracy to carry out their work (20).

QOL is closely related to the balance between job demands and the worker's perceived ability to respond to them (21). The administration of human talent every day becomes an essential element to achieve organizational achievement. In this sense, and considering the human factor an important component for the organization, it is necessary to develop mechanisms capable of recognizing, accompanying and guiding their work progress (22). The CVP seeks to humanize the work environment through the design of a safe, healthy work environment in an organizational, effective, democratic, participatory context. It also provides circumstances for growth at a professional and personal level (23)

The prevention of Occupational Risks made organizations begin to carry out assessments of psychosocial risks and to implement interventions aimed at minimizing them and improving the occupational well-being of professionals (24). It highlights the objective as to determine the quality of work life of rotating nursing interns in pre-professional practice, in order to improve working conditions, seeking more safety and opportunities for their development (25).

9-17 points, and for low quality of life (CVB) between 0-8 points. Job demands: with 9 questions. Score for CVA between 16-22 points, for CVM between 8-15 points, and for CVB between 0-7 points. Intrinsic Motivation: with 14 questions. Score CVA between 16-28 points, for CVM between 8-15 points and for CVB between 0-7 points (27).

It uses a Likert scale, expressed as: Always with a score of 2: (what happens at all or at any time). Sometimes with a score of 1: (what happens alternately on some occasions) and Never with a score of 0: (what will not happen at any time). Through this, it will be classified into high, medium and low. For professional quality of life, it is scored as: for CVA between 47-70 points, for CVM between 24-46 points and for CVB between 0-23 points (28).

The data will be processed with the statistical software (SPSS Statistics 24.0 for Windows), the results are expressed through statistical tables for later analysis and interpretation.

The study will be carried out through a census sample of 101 participants, between men and women belonging to the

rotating boarding school of the Technical University of Ambato, Ecuador.

From the bioethical point of view, the principles for medical research in human beings and the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, justice and autonomy, which serve as a bridge between science and humanity, were respected. In addition, the authorization of the director of the Puyo hospital and the informed consent of each patient were obtained, as evidence that they agreed to participate voluntarily, after having explained concisely and clearly what the research consisted of.


The sociodemographic data identified in the studied sample, presents a predominance of interns aged between 20 and 27 years with: 94 (93.1%). Likewise in relation to gender 90 (89.1%) corresponds to female participants. Regarding the predominance of interns according to the teaching unit, it is observed that it corresponds to the Ambato General Teaching Hospital with 64 (63.4%), followed by the Puyo General Hospital with 24 (23.8%) (Table 1).

When establishing the level of quality of life, according to the managerial support factor, a predominance of medium quality of life was obtained with 56 (55.4%), followed by high quality of life 44 (43.6%) (Table 2)

In reference to the level of quality of life according to the work demand factor, a predominance is observed in the average quality of life with 69 (68.3%), followed by low quality of life with 30 (29.7%) of the inmates (Table 3).

When establishing the analysis of the level of quality of life according to the intrinsic motivation factor, a marked predominance of a high quality of life was observed with 99 (98%) of the rotating nursing interns (Table 4).

Finally, when establishing a comprehensive analysis of the QOL-35 Professional Life Quality Questionnaire in the rotating interns, a predominance of the high quality of life level was obtained with 55 (54.5%), followed by a similar predominance of the average quality of life with 46 (45.5%) and it is noteworthy that none presented low quality of life (Table 5).


The study of the professional quality of life of rotating nursing interns in their pre-professional practice represents 54.5%, which is high; followed by the average quality of life with 45.5%. It is similar to the study carried out by Ana Antuna to the nursing professional of the General Hospital "Luz González Cosió" in the city of Zacatecas where it was found that the professional quality of life is average with 75.8% (29). Similarly, the research carried out in the surgical center of the Lambayeque Regional Hospital in 2021, where a population of 40 nurses was studied, showed a quality of life in a range of high and medium (30).

In the research by Nancy Suclupe et al., regarding the managerial support factor it is 60%. Work demand is 54% and intrinsic motivation is 62% (30). While in the current study it was observed that the factor of managerial support and work demand is similar, with intrinsic motivation being in higher ranges. Also in the study by Ghada Abouzeid et al., the managerial support factor was found with 48%, the work demand dimension with 41% and the intrinsic motivation dimension with 82% (31), the latter very close to the current study.

Ghada Abouzeid et al., used a sample of 208 nursing professionals where the predominant age ranges are 30 to 39 years old and 40 to 49 years old with a total of 39% respectively. There is a predominance of the female gender with a 88% of the total (31), while the current study used a population of 101 rotating nursing interns in which the age range of 20 to 27 years predominates with 93.1%, which is because they are students of the last year of nursing. And there is a similar behavior with respect to the female gender with 89.1%.

In the analysis carried out by Montero et al., about the factors involved in the quality of working life in nursing, they found therapeutic failures, patient care, urgent cases, shift work, work organization, scarcity of resources, the risks of suffering

aggressions and acts of violence by patients or their relatives, dermatitis caused by contact with detergents and materials that make up the gloves (15). It´s important to evaluate these factors for future research.


The quality of working life of rotating nursing interns in their pre-professional practice is the beginning of a different life where hospital life management is known. In the teaching units at the Teaching Hospital of Ambato, General Hospital of Latacunga and General Hospital of Puyo, a predominance was found in the age range of 20 to 27 years of age, the female gender and a high professional quality of life followed by a medium professional quality of life. Half of the rotating nursing interns presented an average quality of life in the managerial support factor, more than half of the interns reached an average quality of life in the work demand and finally almost all of the interns nurses have a high quality of life in the intrinsic motivation factor.


Self financed




To the research project "Strategies for the prevention of childhood diseases, the success of modern pediatrics", Operational Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, Direction of Research and Development (DIDE), Technical University of Ambato, Ecuador for his great contribution in carrying out this study for the benefit of Ambato´s population.


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